Music of Algeria

This week we’re in the largest Mediterranean country, the largest African country, and the home of Rai, the music, not the bread, it’s the music of Algeria!

 

 

Sources:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VPRG7jQqMl4 – Anthem

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ixnRgmbjUQ – Andalusian orchestra, Tlemcen; Redha Benabdallah

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tw_ULWK8bSA – Traditional Chaabi; algeriensunis channel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WrKkPvaZA98 – Newer Chaabi; GregLloydGroup channel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OZjYTO2wnwQ – Kabyle; Matoub Lounès – Thissirth Nendama

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wLqiRWiVxVU – Cheikha Remitti; RAKOUM MHA BENI SAF

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vmNpwBGyiwU – Cheb Khaled; Botrjez

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RyR_UKkV3BY&t=1862s – New Rai; Bled Musique DZ

 

Al-Deen, Hana Noor. “The Evolution of Rai Music” in Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 35, No. 5 (May., 2005), pp. 597-611 Published by: Sage Publications, Inc.

Davis, Ruth. “Traditional Arab Music Ensembles in Tunis: Modernizing Al-Turath in the Shadow of Egypt” in Asian Music, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Spring – Summer, 1997), pp. 73-108 Published by: University of Texas Press

Goodman, Jane. “Singers, Saints, and the Construction of Postcolonial Subjectivities in Algeria” in Ethos, Vol. 26, No. 2, Communicating Multiple Identities in Muslim Communities (Jun., 1998), pp. 204-228 Published by: Wiley on behalf of the American Anthropological Association

Orr, Christopher C. “Songs of Discontent: The Kabyle Voice in Post-Colonial Algeria”. Master Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University The Graduate School of Music.

Stokes, Marin: “Voices and Places: History, Repetition and the Musical Imagination” in The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 3, No. 4 (Dec., 1997), pp. 673-691 Published by: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland

Weltman-Aron, Brigitte. “The Pedagogy of Colonial Algeria: Djebar, Cixous, Derrida” in Yale French Studies, No. 113, French Education: Fifty Years Later (2008), pp. 132- 146 Published by: Yale University Press

http://web.archive.org/web/20040625081859/http://w3fp.arizona.edu:80/mesassoc/Bulletin/reynolds.htm

http://www.algeria.com/music/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaabi_(Algeria)

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=93502483

http://www.algeria.com/blog/algeria-s-andalusian-classical-music

http://folkcloud.com/folk-music-by-country/algeria

http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2012/07/taste-algerian-music

https://www.thoughtco.com/rai-music-basics-3553100

 

Pictures:

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tunisia_in_Africa_(-mini_map_-rivers).svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maghreb_(orthographic_projection).svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Morocco_in_Africa_(only_undisputed)_(-mini_map_-rivers).svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Morocco_in_Africa_(claimed)_(-mini_map_-rivers).svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mauritania_in_Africa_(-mini_map_-rivers).svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mali_in_Africa_(-mini_map_-rivers).svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Niger_in_Africa_(-mini_map_-rivers).svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Barbary_Coast_1590.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PSM_V82_D021_Algerian_berbers_at_ellis_island_coming_to_fill_a_theater_engagement.png

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Berber_warriors_show.JPG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lehnert_Landrock_-_Ouled_Na%C3%AFl_Girl_-_Algeria_-_1905.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Berber_World.png

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Ancient_colonies.PNG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_Rome_and_Carthage_at_the_start_of_the_Second_Punic_War.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_Empire_with_provinces_in_210_AD.png

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https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:French_Empire_17th_century-20th_century.png

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Al-Andalus732.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Muslim_Conquest.PNG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Algerians_in_traditional_costumes.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Algerian_group_Sahara_Festival.jpg

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/A_Cell.JPG

http://www.el-mouradia.dz/francais/symbole/hymne/images/qassaman_1p.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Journal_L%27Algerie_Libre.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Moufdi_zakaria.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mohamed_Fawzi.gif

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:La_prise_de_Constantine_1837_par_Horace_Vernet.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Algerian_women_in_the_algerian_War_of_Independence.jpg

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Detalle_de_la_pared_de_la_Sala_del_Mexuar._La_Alhambra,_Granada.%C2%ABS%C3%B3lo_Dios_es_vencedor%C2%BB.JPG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:C%C3%B3rdoba_2015_10_23_2577_(26191111236).jpg

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https://www.flickr.com/photos/trialsanderrors/2744286081

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https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fighting_at_the_gates_of_Algiers_1830.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Khaled_a_la_Coupole_2014_Algerie_.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ra%C3%AF_ann%C3%A9es_80_(Alg%C3%A9rie).jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alg%C3%A9rie,_le_lundi_de_P%C3%A2ques_%C3%A0_Oran,_divertissements_de_la_colonie_espagnole,_de_Vierge.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vendanges_%C3%A0_Oran_1909.jpg

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https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Casbah_(Old_City)_-_Algiers_(15897706552).jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Algiers_harbor_1899.jpg

https://ar.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D9%84%D9%81:Cheikha_Remitti_(1923-2006).jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Les_Alg%C3%A9riens_bravent_linterdiction_de_manifester_(5448166296).jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cheb_Khaled_performed_in_Oran_on_July_5th_2011.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Abyannu.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Berberka_melje_%C5%BEitarice_u_%C5%BErvnju_-_El_Golea_25._travnja._1985..jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Algerians_in_traditional_costumes.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hoggar_peinture_rupestre1.JPG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vandal_alan_kingdom_526.png

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/%D9%85%D9%88%D8%B3%D9%8A%D9%82%D9%89_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%88%D9%81%D9%8A%D8%A9_%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B1%D9%82%D8%B5_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B4%D8%B9%D8%A8%D9%89_2.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ernst_ladies_tangiers.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ha%C3%AEk.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kabyle_chr%C3%A9tien.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait-Fatma_N%27Soumer.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kabylere.jpg

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https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brahim_Izri(chanteur_kabyle-Alg%C3%A9rie).jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ra%C3%AF_(Alg%C3%A9rie).jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bollywood_Dancers_London.JPG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Fifth_Element.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:C2E2_(Day_3)_2014,_Leeloo_from_%22The_Fifth_Element%22.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Montreal_Comiccon_2016_-_The_Fifth_Element_(27665260304).jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fifth_element_poster_(1997).jpg

Music of Zambia

 

 

Sources:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rc6VwfggFBA – Anthem song

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LGu5E4fLl2U – Vimbuza dance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T7CxoJwCats – Vimbuza dance trance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2FM_HQ818dM – Kalela Singing

https://vimeo.com/82587329 – Kalela Dance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GVYO_cu1Z2Q – Ching’ande Dance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xAZo-rn_AAs – WITCH Zamrock song

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WF3giC3xCXI – Kalandula song

Brelsford, Vernon. History and Customs of the Basala in The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 65 (Jul. – Dec., 1935), pp. 205-215 Published by: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland

Chilivumbo, A.B. Vimbuza or Mashawe: A Mystic Therapy in African Music Vol. 5, No. 2 (1972), pp. 6-9 Published by: International Library of African Music

Friedson, Steven M. Dancing Prophets: Musical Experience in Tumbuka Healing. University of Chicago Press, 1 Sep. 1996

Janzen, John M. ‘Doing Ngoma’: A Dominant Trope in African Religion and Healing from Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. 21, Fasc. 4 (Nov., 1991), pp. 290-308 Published by: Brill

http://ukzambians.co.uk/home/2009/12/16/classical-music-for-zambia/

https://globalpressjournal.com/africa/zambia/zambian-classical-music-academy-quickens-cadence-of-student-proficiency-public-interest-in-genre/

https://www.lusakatimes.com/2014/03/14/spectacular-new-opera-debut-lusaka/

http://edition.cnn.com/2014/08/19/world/africa/mulenga-kapwepwe-zambias-patron-arts/

https://www.facebook.com/pg/National-Arts-Council-of-Zambia-170902009723282/about/

http://www.instrumentsforafrica.com/where-weve-helped.html

http://www.lowdownzambia.com/2013/06/29/lusaka-music-society

http://www.nationalanthems.info/zm.htm

http://www.zambezitraveller.com/livingstone/history/zambia%E2%80%99s-national-anthem-history

http://musicinafrica.net/popular-music-zambia

https://theculturetrip.com/africa/zambia/articles/zambia-s-kalindula-music-of-death-drums-and-poetry/

http://theappendix.net/issues/2014/7/were-a-zambian-band?utm_content=bufferb960f&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer

http://musicinafrica.net/traditional-music-zambia?language=en

http://www.era.anthropology.ac.uk/Kalela/intro.html#THESONG

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Zambia

http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/RL/vimbuza-healing-dance-00158

http://kitweonline.com/kitweonline/discover-kitwe/culture/ceremonies/tonga_initiation_ceremonies.html

http://musicinafrica.net/traditional-music-zambia?language=en

 

 

Photos:

http://www.nationalanthems.info/za-97b~.pdf – Anthem

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/Tumbuku_people_in_Malawi_Zambia_Tanzania.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Zambia.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Location_Namibia_AU_Africa.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Location_Botswana_AU_Africa.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Location_Zimbabwe_AU_Africa.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Location_Mozambique_AU_Africa.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Location_Malawi_AU_Africa.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Location_Tanzania_AU_Africa.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Location_Angola_AU_Africa.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Location_Zambia_AU_Africa.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Location_DR_Congo_AU_Africa.svg

https://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilt:KaribaDam.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:San_tribesman.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Southafrica468bushman.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:San-Paintings_Murewa_ZW.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bantu_expansion.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Northern_Rhodesia_(1939-1953).svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tribal_Linguistic_map_Zambia.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Village_along_Great_East_road_-_Zambia.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zambian_Village,_Lower_Zambezi_(2508543521).jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kunda_Village.JPG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lusaka,_Zambia_at_Night.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lusaka_-_Manda_Hill_Shopping_Centre.JPG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zambia_Lusaka_Cairo_Road_Krzysztof_B%C5%82a%C5%BCyca_2011.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sontonga.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Southern_Africa_new_map.png

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Picha_yangu_inaonesha_vijana_wa_kiafrika_waliolowana_jasho_baada_ya_kucheza_ngoma_za_asili.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ngoma_Dance_instrument_players.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vimbuza_dancer.jpg

https://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilt:T%C3%A4nzerinnen_Watumbuka.JPG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zambia,_administrative_divisions_-_en_-_colored.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_MOUNTAIN_OF_DAMAGED_OIL_DRUMS_NEAR_THE_EXXON_REFINERY_-_NARA_-_546000.jpg

http://www.ngomadolce.org/the-place

http://www.evelynhone.edu.zm/index.php/about-us

http://www.afrisson.com/Le-kalindula-instrument-symbole-de-7878.html

http://theappendix.net/images/issues/2/3/large-Zamrock8.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stones_ad_1965-2.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Deep_Purple_(UK_Tour_1976).JPG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jimi_Hendrix_1967_uncropped.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:James_Brown_Live_Hamburg_1973_1702730029.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:COLLECTIE_TROPENMUSEUM_Portret_van_een_Kaonde_vrouw_in_de_omgeving_van_Kasempa_TMnr_20039220.jpg

http://www.folkways.si.edu/songs-for-entertainment-from-the-valley-tonga-people-of-zambia/world/music/album/smithsonian

http://www.everyculture.com/To-Z/Zambia.html

Music of Albania


No McDonald’s, 700,000 concrete bunkers, and a tall blue alien. It’s the music of Albania.

Website: www.theethnomusicologist.com

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/The-EthnoMUSICologist-1736927923238427/

Twitter: https://twitter.com/TheEthnoMuso

Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/the_ethnomusicologist/

Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/TheEthnoMUSICologist

Sources:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kJORBPlLCa8 – Anthem video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0JtUvGNqZU – Frontier Warriors

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yPkfTpjswOQ – Lullaby

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N5iRS1Tyiik – Mountain Cry

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TeJZ0B5b-L8 – Urban Lyric video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N7mBFOdIKwk – Toske Women’s song

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rRmHzHSOOH0 – Demir Zyko video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F0RLVPV79ZE – Laberia Polyphony

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9QwztaDGbGo – Curle Dyjare video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NAO0n50ozTk – Saze video

Koco, Eno. Albanian Urban Lyric Song in the 1930s, Volume 1. Scarecrow Press, 2004

Lloyd, A.L. Albanian Folk Song in Folk Music Journal, Vol. 1, No. 4 (1968), pp. 205-222 Published by: English Folk Dance + Song Society

Mahony, Marinela. An Investigation of the Polyphonic Music of Albania. http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/27337/dissertation.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Rapaj, Mario. Choral Music in Albania. file:///C:/Users/Jason%20Pockrus/Downloads/DPTX_2012_2_11410_0_392875_0_135252.pdf

Sheholli, Bahtir. Traditional and Contemporary Elements in Albanian Folk Music. https://dspace.aab-edu.net/bitstream/handle/123456789/12/01-2008-EN-11-Bahtir_Sheholli-anglisht.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Tochka, Nicholas. To “Enlighten And Beautify”: Western Music and the Modern Project of Personhood in Albania, c. 1906–1924 from Ethnomusicology, Vol. 59, No. 3 (Fall 2015), pp. 398-420 Published by: University of Illinois Press

https://songofmypeople.wordpress.com/2012/12/26/himni-i-flamurit-hymn-to-the-flag-national-anthem-of-the-republic-of-albania/

http://www.albanian.com/information/countries/albania/general/anthem.html

http://www.nationalanthems.info/al.htm

https://web.archive.org/web/20091026231048/http://geocities.com/vaso_tole/Albanian/NationAnthem-AL.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Himni_i_Flamurit

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Albania

http://frosina.org/classical-music-in-albania/

http://www.albanian-philharmonic-orchestra.net/about.html

 

 

Photos:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OttomanEmpireMain.png

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ancient_balkans_4thcentury.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_ancient_Epirus_and_environs_(English).svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Northwester_Greeks_and_Southern_Illyrian_tribes.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tefta_Tashko-Ko%C3%A7o

http://www.nationalanthems.info/al~.gif

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Albania_(1946-1992).svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Albania_(1934-1939).svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Albania_(1914-1920).svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Albania_in_Europe.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Albania-map.png

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A.S._Drenova.JPG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ciprian_Porumbescu_-_Foto.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Albanian_Rivers.png

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Albanian_dialects.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Folk-tales_of_Bengal_122.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lahuta.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Albanian_Duel_by_Alexandre_Gabriel_Decamps_1828.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maja_e_That%C3%AB_(2406_m)_in_the_Albanian_Alps.jpg

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Valbona_Haze_Panorama.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Doberdol,_Tropoj%C3%AB_Mulajt_33.jpg#mw-jump-to-license

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Granny_in_Albania.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jezerski_Vrh_(2694)_sa_Karanfila_(2480).jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Podgorica_district_east_Bielasica_mountains_Veru%C5%A1a_valley_Rikavac_-_Albania_Prokletije_mts_IMG_1353.JPG

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Orfeu-atenas.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Double_harmonic_scale_on_C.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:C_major_pentatonic_scale.PNG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_traditional_male_folk_group_from_Skrapar.JPG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Curle_dyjare_QKVF.jpg

http://www.forumishqiptar.com/threads/2064-Tekste-t%C3%AB-k%C3%ABng%C3%ABve-polifonike/page20

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gjirokastra01.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gjirokaster.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Valle_e_shoqeruar_me_dajre_dhe_saze(1957).jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gjirokast%C3%ABr_folk_singers_1988.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Albanian_Alps_from_Rozafa.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Teatri_Komb%C3%ABtar_i_Operas_dhe_Baletit.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tirana_Night_View.jpg

https://www.flickr.com/photos/archer10/10796629646

https://sq.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Skeda:%C3%81tMartinGjoka.jpg&filetimestamp=20120308211018&

https://sq.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skeda:MGjoka.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:13_Gjakov%C3%AB_-_Shkolla_e_Muzik%C3%ABs_Prenk_Jakova_-_Music_School_Prenk_Jakova.JPG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Skanderbeg_Monument_in_Kruj%C3%AB.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zadeja.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tirana_with_Dajti_2009.jpg

http://www.uart.edu.al/foto/flash2/foto3.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ansambli_Artistik_i_K%C3%ABng%C3%ABve_dhe_Valleve_i_Mitrovic%C3%ABs_duke_p%C3%ABrformuar.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tirana,_istituto_d%27arte_05.JPG

http://www.albanian-philharmonic-orchestra.net/images/content_2.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Inva_Mula.jpg

https://www.flickr.com/photos/tonyshek/17327807075/

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bazar_Tirana_(ca._1900)2.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gjirokaster,_street_3.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Marie-kraja.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Florin_Salam.png

https://sq.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Skeda:Drejtues_Paloke_Kurti.jpg&filetimestamp=20120315170725&

https://sq.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Skeda:Palok%C3%A8KurtiPSH.jpg&filetimestamp=20101119211831&

https://sq.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skeda:%C3%87esk_Zadeja.JPG

https://sq.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skeda:Pjakova.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Snowflake_Waltz_NYC_Ballet_1954.png

Music of Zimbabwe

 

Sources:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JXRWk1ua83o – anthem song

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P7Xdu2pNVPQ – Jerusarema/mbende video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uMgSh5uGRRo – Muchongoyo video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQQB9DMuuDQ – Mbira Kariga Mombe video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OXBQbn6wZeQ – Bira ceremony video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qA3uSMNcgiM – Marimba video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HM-1rfqP9KM – Zimdancehall video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gh09mGhTQhE – Chimurenga video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SxGMZZjypC0 – Tuku video

http://www.nationalanthems.info/zw~.jpg – anthem score

Asante, Kariamu Welsh. The Jerusarema Dance of Zimbabwe in Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 15, No. 4, African and African-American Dance, Music, and Theatre (Jun., 1985), pp. 381-403 Published by: Sage Publications, Inc.

Berliner, Paul. The Poetic Song Texts Accompanying the Mbira Dzavadzimu in Ethnomusicology, Vol. 20, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 451-482 Published by: University of Illinois Press

Berliner, Paul. The Soul of Mbira: Music and Traditions of the Shona People of Zimbabwe. University of Chicago Press, 1 Jun. 1993

Chikowero, Moses. ‘Our People Father, They Haven’t Learned Yet’: Music and Postcolonial Identities in Zimbabwe, 1980-2000 from Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Mar., 2008), pp. 145-160 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.

Jones, Claire. Shona Women Mbira Players: Gender, Tradition and Nation in Zimbabwe from Ethnomusicology Forum, Vol. 17, No. 1, ‘Sounds of Power’: Musical Instruments and Gender (Jun., 2008), pp. 125-149

Kaemmer, John E. Social Power and Music Change among the Shona in Ethnomusicology, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Winter, 1989), pp. 31-45 Published by: University of Illinois Press

Kauffman, Robert. Shona Urban Music and the Problem of Acculturation inYearbook of the International Folk Music Council, Vol. 4, 25th Anniversary Issue (1972), pp. 47-56 Published by: International Council for Traditional Music

Kauffman, Robert. Some Aspects of Aesthetics in the Shona Music of Rhodesia in Ethnomusicology, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Sep., 1969), pp. 507-511 Published by: University of Illinois Press

Kubik, Gerhard. Nsenga/Shona Harmonic Patterns and the San Heritage in Southern Africa in Ethnomusicology, Vol. 32, No. 2 (Spring – Summer, 1988), pp. 39-76 Published by: University of Illinois Press

Mensah, Atta Annan. Ndebele-Soli Bi-Musicality in Zambia from Yearbook of the International Folk Music Council, Vol. 2 (1970), pp. 108-120 Published by: International Council for Traditional Music

Perman, Tony. Dancing in Opposition: Muchongoyo, Emotion, and the Politics of Performance in Southeastern Zimbabwe from Ethnomusicology, Vol. 54, No. 3 (Fall 2010), pp. 425-451 Published by: University of Illinois Press

Rhodes, Willard. Music as an Agent of Political Expression in African Studies Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 2, Arts, Human Behavior, and Africa (May, 1962), pp. 14-22 Published by: Cambridge University Press

Scannell, Paddy. Music, Radio and the Record Business in Zimbabwe Today from Popular Music, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Jan., 2001), pp. 13-27 Published by: Cambridge University Press

Vambe, Maurice Taonezvi. Popular Songs and Social Realities in Post-Independence Zimbabwe in African Studies Review, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Sep., 2000), pp. 73-86 Published by: Cambridge University Press

Williams, Linda F. Reflexive Ethnography: An Ethnomusicologist’s Experience as a Jazz Musician in Zimbabwe from Black Music Research Journal, Vol. 25, No. 1/2 (Spring – Fall, 2005), pp. 155-165 Published by: Center for Black Music Research – Columbia College Chicago and University of Illinois Press

Williams, Linda F. “Straight-Fashioned Melodies”: The Transatlantic Interplay of American Music in Zimbabwe from American Music, Vol. 15, No. 3 (Autumn, 1997), pp. 285-304 Published by: University of Illinois Press

http://www.zimembassydc.gov.zw/index.php/14-sample-data-articles/139-national-anthem-of-zimbabwe

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishe_Komborera_Africa

http://www.nationalanthems.info/zw.htm

http://www.zim.gov.zw/home-2/2-uncategorised/45-national-anthem

https://www.theindependent.co.zw/2012/08/31/classical-music-concert-for-harare/

http://allafrica.com/stories/201604290266.html

http://musicinafrica.net/traditional-music-zimbabwe

http://www.kalimba.co.za/old/marimbahistory.html

http://www.postcolonialweb.org/zimbabwe/music/kwaramba14.html

http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/RL/mbende-jerusarema-dance-00169

http://musicinafrica.net/traditional-dances-zimbabwe

https://omeka1.grinnell.edu/MusicalInstruments/exhibits/show/ens/bira

http://www.herald.co.zw/changing-music-styles-in-zimbabwe/

http://musicinafrica.net/popular-music-zimbabwe

http://musicinafrica.net/directory/oliver-mtukudzi

http://www.worldmusic.net/guide/music-of-zimbabwe/

http://www.academia.edu/1595082/POPULAR_MUSIC_AS_JOURNALISM_IN_ZIMBABWE

http://www.zambuko.com/mbirapage/resource_guide/pages/music/chimurenga.html

 

 

Photos:

http://www.zimbabwemusicacademy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/IMG_0012.jpg

http://www.morningmirror.africanherd.com/bulawayo-morning-mirror-newspaper/Zimbabwe-Academy-of-Music-incorporating-Girls-College-music-centre.jpg

http://image.rakuten.co.jp/calms-hida/cabinet/calms/img55581906.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rhodesian_African_Rifles,_Lake_Kariba,_December_1976,_3.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lancaster-House-Agreement.png

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zimbabwe_in_Africa.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Federation_rhodesia_nyasaland.png

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Punch_Rhodes_Colossus.png

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shona_witch_doctor_(Zimbabwe).jpg

https://www.flickr.com/photos/sgerner/784948028

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:White_Zimbabwean_montage.png

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sontonga.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lobengula-image.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mzilikazi~detail.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mbira_dzavadzimu.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mbira1.png

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mbira_dzavadzimu_in_deze.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hosho_instrument.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:African_students_playing_Marimba_1.jpg

http://byothedocumentary.weebly.com/uploads/2/8/1/1/28110865/2053951.jpg?415

http://hararechambermusicfestival.co.zw/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/jeanette-micklem-231×300.jpg

http://www.hifa.co.zw/Data/Photos/45/hifa2011-18444__zoom.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zimbabwean_Traditional_Dance.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sangoma_Dancing_in_Celebration_of_his_Ancestors.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:M%27bira_Dzavadzimu.JPG

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Colonial_Africa_1914_map.png

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tuku.JPG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ndebele-women-loopspruit.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:N%27anga.jpg

https://www.flickr.com/photos/nagarjun/8666937531

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Zambia.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Tanzania.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Namibia.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Anthem_of_Zimbabwe

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Winky_D.jpg

Music of Afghanistan!

Sources:
http://staging.afghanembassy.us/contents/2016/03/documents/AfghanNationalAnthem-MusicalNotes.pdf – Anthem Score
http://www.khyber.org/culture/a/Flavours_of_Pashto_Music.shtml – Pashto music with video examples
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aA7oKfL5LW4 – Attan video clip
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gs9y-P0FdOo – Anthem soundclip
https://youtu.be/KREnOIfvEm8 – Tappa Clip
https://youtu.be/LyPCsonexbE – Charbetta Clip
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1Y-hLuTM3g – Ghazal clip
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-ONH7m0ir4 – Kiliwali Clip, Ahmad Zahir

Baily, John. A System of Modes Used in the Urban Music of Afghanistan. From Ethnomusicology, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Jan., 1981), pp. 1-39 Published by: University of Illinois Press on behalf of Society for Ethnomusicology
Baily, John. Cross-Cultural Perspectives in Popular Music: The Case of Afghanistan. From Popular Music, Vol. 1, Folk or Popular? Distinctions, Influences, Continuities (1981), pp. 105-122 Published by: Cambridge University Press
Baily, John. So near, so Far: Kabul’s Music in Exile. From Ethnomusicology Forum, Vol. 14, No. 2, Music and Identity in Central Asia (Nov., 2005), pp. 213-233 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on behalf of the British Forum for Ethnomusicology
Baily, John. A Description of the Naqqarakhana of Herat, Afghanistan. From Asian Music, Vol. 11, No. 2 (1980), pp. 1-10 Published by: University of Texas Press
Banerjee, Sumanta. Unheard Melodies from Afghanistan. From Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 37, No. 5, Money, Banking and Finance (Feb. 2- 8, 2002), pp. 380-381 Published by: Economic and Political Weekly
Hitchins, Keith. Neighboring Cultures: Central Asia, Afghanistan, China. From Iranian Studies, Vol. 31, No. 3/4, A Review of the “Encyclopaedia Iranica” (Summer- Autumn, 1998), pp. 571-582. Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on behalf of International Society of Iranian Studies
Hoerburger, Felix. Supplementary Jingling in the Instrumental Folk Music of Afghanistan. From Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Vol. 20 (1968), pp. 51-54 Published by: International Council for Traditional Music
Hyman, Anthony. Nationalism in Afghanistan. From International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 34, No. 2, Special Issue: Nationalism and the Colonial Legacy in the Middle East and Central Asia (May, 2002), pp. 299-315 Published by: Cambridge University Press
Sakata, Hiromi Lorraine. Musicians Who Do Not Perform; Performers Who are Not Musicians: Indigenous Conceptions of being an Afghan Musician. From Asian Music, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Autumn – Winter, 1985), pp. 132-142 Published by: University of Texas Press
Sarmast, Ahmad. The “Naghma-ye Chārtuk” of Afghanistan: A New Perspective on the Origin of a Solo Instrumental Genre. From Asian Music, Vol. 38, No. 2 (Summer – Autumn, 2007), pp. 97-114 Published by: University of Texas Press
Slobin, Mark. Music and the Structure of Town Life in Northern Afghanistan. From Ethnomusicology, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Sep., 1970), pp. 450-458 Published by: University of Illinois Press on behalf of Society for Ethnomusicology
Sultanova, Razia. Female Celebrations in Uzbekistan and Afghanistan: The Power of Cosmology in Musical Rites. From Yearbook for Traditional Music, Vol. 40 (2008), pp. 8-20 Published by: International Council for Traditional Music

Renaissance: Afghan National Symphony Orchestra


http://www.cbsnews.com/news/afghan-youth-orchestra-hopes-to-bring-peace-through-music/
https://web.archive.org/web/20051104054505/http://www.mikalina.com/Texts/music-afghanistan.htm
http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/01/31/512592727/all-female-orchestra-from-afghanistan-is-a-force-for-change
http://www.rferl.org/a/1062873.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Afghanistan#Afghan_hip_hop
http://theafghanistanexperience.blogspot.com.au/2007/11/what-is-music-of-afghanistan.html
https://www.revolvy.com/topic/Music%20of%20Afghanistan&item_type=topic
https://www.revolvy.com/topic/Klasik&item_type=topic
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8426436.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4755701.stm
https://rtd.rt.com/films/dangerous-music/
http://www.akdn.org/our-agencies/aga-khan-trust-culture/akmi/cd-dvd-series/homayun-sakhi
http://www.easternartists.com/DANCE%202%20Afghan.html
http://www.oart.eu/joomla/melody
http://gupshup.org/gs/culture-arts-literature-and-linguistics/25320-look-pashtun-musical-instruments.html
http://www.khyber.org/culture/a/Traditional_Dances_of_Pashtoon.shtml
http://www.afghan-web.com/anthem/
http://www.nationalanthems.info/af.htm
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babrak_Wassa
https://www.afghanembassy.us/about-afghanistan/frequently-asked-questions/

Photos:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Afghanistan_on_the_globe_(Afro-Eurasia_centered).svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BamyanBuddha_Smaller_1.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mes_Aynak_stupa.jpg
090204-F-6426S-102
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Afghan_musicians_in_Farah.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Babrak_Wassa.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_Ethnic_Groups_in_Afghanistan,_by_district.svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tajik_people.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Musical_Instruments_and_Musicians._A_Man_Playing_a_Dutar,_a_Long-Necked_Fretted_Lute_WDL10767.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kyrgyz_Musicians_in_Karakol.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pashtun_people.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Centries_old_heritage,_Rubab.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Afghan_musicians_in_Farah.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Secretary_Kerry_Surprises_Children_from_the_Afghan_National_Institute_of_Music.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Naghma_2010.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Raja_Ravi_Varma,_Galaxy_of_Musicians.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:An_Indian_classical_music_performance.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Raffael_071.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Attan112.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Afghan_National_Security_Forces_graduate_4,123_trainees_(4840741060).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sorna2.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Afghanistan_map_Herat.png
https://static1.squarespace.com/static/56f347ea07eaa0dc322a6d88/t/570b5ddf3c44d85ff508d8c7/1460362725412/1.jpg?format=500w
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amir-Sher-Ali-Khan.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jagjit_Singh_(Ghazal_Maestro).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pre_Islamic_Arabia.PNG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WGSRPD_Arabian_Peninsula.svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Habib-Ghazal.jpg
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/He_Viceroy_of_India%2C_6th_Earl_of_Mayo_%281822%E2%80%931872%29%2C_receives_Sher_Ali_Khan_%281825%E2%80%931879%29%2C_Amir_of_Afghanistan%2C_at_Ambala%2C_India%2C.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shuja_Shah_Durrani_of_Afghanistan_in_1839.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:King_Amanullah_Khan.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1950s_Afghanistan_-_Radio_Kabul_control_room.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1950s_Afghanistan_-_Afghan_radio_station.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pashtana_Shinwari_at_Camp_Morehead_in_Afghanistan.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Samarkand_A_group_of_musicians_playing_for_a_bacha_dancing_boy.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ustad_Ghulam_Hussein.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Afghan_Girl_Scouts_1950s.jpg
Insurgents Lay Down Weapons
https://static1.squarespace.com/static/587f1c5fd482e9a27b0f68b9/5883074c5016e13d97b18702/588b023be6f2e190d38bea20/1485505091859/001.jpg?format=1000w
Dj Besho
http://s997.photobucket.com/user/afghansaaz/media/ObaidJuenda7.jpg.html
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-DykzZwSzgdc/UlY2g1Ebq6I/AAAAAAAAGlo/WFMk2LTdLuc/s1600/3.jpg
https://cdn1.pri.org/sites/default/files/styles/story_main/public/story/images/Sonita.jpg?itok=k3hP8fOT

Sia, Scales, and Microtones: How many notes are there?

How many music notes exist? Well the range of human hearing is between 20hrz and 20khz, though as much as 15Hz to 28kHz is not unheard of. Now, we know that sound frequency doubles with each octave, so if we start with the lowest C within human hearing and keep doubling the frequency until we get to the highest C in human hearing, we get 10 octaves, and we know each octave contains 12 notes…so how many notes are there? Well, it’s a bit more complicated than that?

Music:
Adventures by A Himitsu https://soundcloud.com/a-himitsu
Creative Commons — Attribution 3.0 Unported— CC BY 3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b…
Music provided by Audio Library https://youtu.be/MkNeIUgNPQ8

Sources:
Cullen, Richard. African Music in Seventeenth-Century Jamaica: Cultural Transit and Transition in The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 4 (Oct., 1993), pp. 700-726 (Accessed via Jstor)
http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/p/pod/dod-idx/towards-algorithmic-descriptions-of-continuous-modulations.pdf?c=icmc;idno=bbp2372.1995.115 – measuring glissandos
https://www.goldennumber.net/music/ – Fibonacci and music chart
http://ethnomusicologyreview.ucla.edu/content/origin-european-folk-music-scale-new-theory – scales in European folk music
https://golem.ph.utexas.edu/category/2010/02/a_look_at_the_mathematical_ori.html – Mathematical origins of scales
http://vaczy.dk/htm/scales2.htm – scales in different cultures
http://www.sengpielaudio.com/calculator-centsratio.htm – cents to hertz calculator
https://www.goldennumber.net/music/ – music and Fibonacci
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qNf9nzvnd1k – frequencies video
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slendro – slendro scale
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelog – pelog scale
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrygian_dominant_scale – Phrygian dominant scale
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baganda_music#The_instrument – baganda music
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shruti_(music) – pitch in Indian music
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_maqam – Arabic scales
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raga#R.C4.81ga-R.C4.81gini_system – Raga
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svara – Indian music intervals
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scale_(music) – wiki entry on scales
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makam – turkish musical intervals
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Just-noticeable_difference – just noticeable difference
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beat_(acoustics) – interference frequencies (beats)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cent_(music) – cents
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/833_cents_scale – scale based on combination tones

Photos:
https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Circle_of_fifths_deluxe_4.svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tuner.svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Playing_on_Samisen,_Yokin_and_Kokin.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:S%C3%BCleymanname_ottoman_ensemble_(1530).JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chinese_music.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kapitolinischer_Pythagoras_adjusted.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spiral_aloe.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Low_pressure_system_over_Iceland.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Messier51_sRGB.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Golden_Ratio_4.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:7234014_Parthenonas_(cropped).jpg
Fibonacci Spiral
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Evolution_of_22_Shrutis_from_Shadja_(Fundamental)_and_their_natural_arrangement_on_a_string.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Javanese_Gamelan.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alexander_ellis.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Music_intervals_frequency_ratio_equal_tempered_pythagorean_comparison.svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blind_Baganda_Harpist.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mutesa_I.jpg
touch
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Galileo_Thermometer.jpg
Listen
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Microtone.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ahmed_Maalaoui_L’idem.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sia_at_Seattle.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chromatic-tuner.jpg
http://maxpixel.freegreatpicture.com/Studio-Tuner-Music-2002446
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Beating_Frequency.svg

Music of Australia!

https://youtu.be/rJfAAvl7pkI

Aboriginal music, the Bee Gees, Dame Jean Sutherland…it’s Australia!

Music:
Running Through the Forrest: Doug Maxwell/Media Right Productions

Sources:
https://musicaustralia.org.au/discover/the-professional-music-industry/music-in-australia/
http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country
http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/austn-music
http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/austn-indigenous-ceremony

Songlines: How Indigenous Australians Use Music to Mark Geography


http://www.folkways.si.edu/aboriginal-songman/maraian-chant/world/music/track/smithsonian
http://aboriginalart.com.au/didgeridoo/songman.html
https://www.acoustics.asn.au/conference_proceedings/AAS2002/AAS2002/PDF/AUTHOR/AC020063.PDF

https://www.didjshop.com/austrAboriginalMusicInstruments.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3przA4Mgf8 – gumleaf clip

Is this the world’s most unusual musical instrument or just one of them?

Photos:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kangaroo.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Scribbly_Gum_leaf_(8349103976).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Australia_on_the_globe_(Oceania_centered).svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_Sunda_and_Sahul.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_migration_out_of_Africa.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Migraciones_austronesias.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1981_event_Australian_aboriginals.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Australia_Aboriginal_Culture_002_(5447678025).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Australia_Aboriginal_Culture_011.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Didgeridoo_(Imagicity_1070).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aboriginal_Art_Australia(6).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Australie_Aborigene_ancetre_totemique_kangourou.jpg
Aboriginal Art
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Didgeridu_and_clap_sticks.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Clapsticks.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rombus_bullroarer_from_Australia.jpg
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BullRoarerBritish1898.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alexander_Schramm_-_A_scene_in_South_Australia_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Mellish_in_Sydney_Harbour.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Australian_bush_river_reflection.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gone_Driveabout_17,_Bush_at_Yuin_Station,_Western_Australia,_24_Oct._2010_-_Flickr_-_PhillipC.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emu_bush.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Andamans_QE3_116.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:New_South_Wales_in_Australia.svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Old_Bush_Songs_by_Banio_Paterson.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Walter_Withers_-_The_Drover,_1912.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:015_Die_Br%C3%BCder_Steinegger_nach_einem_Lichtbild_in_den_1880er-Jahren_-_%C3%84nderung_der_Tracht.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hut_Eastern_Arrernte_Basedow.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:UluruClip3ArtC1941.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aboriginal_Art_Australia(3).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aboriginal_Art_Australia.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aileron-BigAboriginalManStatue.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aboriginal_boys_and_men_in_front_of_a_bush_shelter_-_NTL_PH0731-0022.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Showing_method_of_attack_with_boomerang_-_NMA-15147.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Salty_lakes_after_rain_in_Australian_outback_Northern_Territory_Australia_seen_from_plane.jpeg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:His_Majesty’s_Theatre,_Perth_1933_audience.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Percy_Grainger_portrait_(5599601957).jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Percy_Grainger_(5097601282).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nellie_Melba_1.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dame_Joan_Sutherland_22_Allan_Warren.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DavidPereira_cellist_2005.jpg
Sydney Symphony Orchestra
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sydney_Opera_House_at_Sunset.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sydney_Opera_House,_vivid_Sydey.JPG
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Tp2LIr5ELfw/VUuYKSk9LaI/AAAAAAAAiH8/5o4wUc2nuc8/s1600/Johnny%2BO%27Keefe.jpg
http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/indigenous-music-desert-rock
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ACDC_-_Toronto_November_7,_2008.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AC_DC_at_London%27s_Olympic_Stadium.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bee_Gees_1977.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:John_Farnham_Live.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Olivia_Newton-John_930-0132.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SLNSW_11503_Tex_Mortons_Cowboy_Roadshow_A_cowboy_with_a_boomerang.jpg
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Slim_Dusty_with_Golden_Guitar.jpeg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Keith_Urban_Nashville.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bryte_Indigenous_Promo.jpg

Mystery Music Ep. 4

https://youtu.be/t-tJBHB9Vg4

This is Mystery Music, the series that introduces you to three new musical styles, musical cultures, and musical people from around the world. As you watch, don’t forget to play along down in the comment section, try to guess what you’re listening to, before the big reveal at the end!

Website: www.theethnomusicologist.com

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/The-EthnoMUSICologist-1736927923238427/

Twitter: https://twitter.com/TheEthnoMuso

Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/the_ethnomusicologist/

Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/TheEthnoMUSICologist

Music:
Into Uncertainty – Jay Man – OurMusicBox

— Spoilers —
# 1 Potlatch Song
Sources:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DhT7L1Bn-GE&t=3s – Song clip
https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=8WjADAAAQBAJ&pg=PA143&dq=Kwakwaka%27wakw+music&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi6-qLo14DSAhXBJJQKHUYSDsMQ6AEIGDAA#v=snippet&q=Kwakwaka’wakw&f=false – Book on Kwakiutl culture
https://books.google.com.sg/books?id=P4rf9W02vv0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Kwakwaka%27wakw+music&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi6-qLo14DSAhXBJJQKHUYSDsMQ6AEIHjAB#v=onepage&q&f=false – Book on Kwakiutl Music
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potlatch – Wiki potlach entry
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwakwaka%27wakw – wiki Kwakiutl entry
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwakwaka%27wakw_music – wiki Kwakiutl music entry

Photos:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kwakiutl.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kwakiutl-Sailing-Boats.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Kwakiutl_Indians_of_Vancouver_Island._(postcard)_-_NARA_-_297251.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WTMTL_Organisateur_M%C3%A2t_tot%C3%A9mique_Kwakiutl_(milieu).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kwakiutl-Boat.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tluwulahu-Mask.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kwakwakawakwgirl.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hamasaka-Tluwulahu-Costume.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edward_S._Curtis,_Kwakiutl_bridal_group,_British_Columbia,_1914.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Masked_dancers_-_Qagyuhl_(2838796125).jpg
Tsimshian Copper
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kwakwaka%27wakw_man_and_copper_shield,_by_Edward_Curtis.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Vancouver_Island_community._(postcard)_-_NARA_-_297252.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kwakiutl_woman_and_grandson_VPL_14068A.jpg
http://images.metmuseum.org/CRDImages/mi/original/DP152107a.jpg
http://www2.clarku.edu/~jborgatt/ld_nwcdrum.jpg

# 2 “The Love Express”
Sources:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZGGf-u_f3k – Video clip
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pongsri_Woranuch – Wiki entry Pongsri Woranuch
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luk_thung – Wiki entry Luk thung
http://travel.cnn.com/bangkok/drink/mor-lam-and-luk-thung-guide-bangkoks-thai-folk-music-scene-953038/ – CNN article, Luk thung

Photos:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thailand,_administrative_divisions_-_de_-_colored.svg
thailand-map
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Glenn_Miller_Billboard.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gene_Autry_and_Smiley_Burnette_singing_in_In_Old_Santa_Fe_film,_1934.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Akha_village.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rice_farmers_Mae_Wang_Chiang_Mai_Province.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thailand_-_fully_clothed_people_giving_bath_to_elephants.jpg
https://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B9%84%E0%B8%9F%E0%B8%A5%E0%B9%8C:16%E0%B8%9B%E0%B8%B5%E0%B9%81%E0%B8%AB%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%87%E0%B8%84%E0%B8%A7%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%AB%E0%B8%A5%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%87.jpg

# 3 Al-Bar’ah
Sources:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=87h_TNLHRGY – Video Clip
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bedouin#Arabian_Peninsula – wiki entry on Bedouin
http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/RL/al-barah-music-and-dance-of-oman-dhofari-valleys-00372 – Unesco information on Al-Bar’ah

Photos:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:John_Frederick_Lewis_-_A_Bedouin_Encampment;_or,_Bedouin_Arabs_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bedouin_Chief_of_Palmyra_Holy_Land_(i.e._Tadmur_Syria).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bedouin_tents_and_occupants_Holy_Land.jpg
Bedouin Tent
http://maxpixel.freegreatpicture.com/Tunisia-Caravan-Desert-Sand-Bedouin-Sahara-733613
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shubat_vs_Kumis.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Camel_milking_in_Niger.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:20070227_OUARGLA_Camel_Race.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dhofar_in_Oman.svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oman._Dhofar_1971_(8661786719).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:UNESCO_World_Heritage_flag.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bedouin_family-Wahiba_Sands.jpg

5 Instruments that Seem Easy, but are Actually Really Hard

https://youtu.be/rADzH6sHIpU

 

Not every instrument requires years of practice to master. But some instruments are deceptively difficult. Like these 5 instruments that seem easy, but are actually difficult.

Website: www.theethnomusicologist.com

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/The-EthnoMUSICologist-1736927923238427/

Twitter: https://twitter.com/TheEthnoMuso

Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/the_ethnomusicologist/

Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/TheEthnoMUSICologist

Music:
Say Yeah – Topher Mohr and Alex Elena: https://youtu.be/-wiUIs9I9EM

Photos:
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/3858055 by roger jones
https://pixabay.com/en/costume-move-tuba-instrument-667541/
https://pixabay.com/en/rotary-valves-tuba-valves-stimmzug-429948/
https://pixabay.com/en/hands-musical-instrument-tuba-1495051/
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EuphoniumAndTuba_wb.jpg
Horn Luggers
Bruce Broughton (b. 1945): Tuba Concerto Number 3, Opus 26 - Tyler Schwirian, Tuba
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_orchestra_and_its_instruments_(1917)_(14780139784).jpg
2014 Tuba Christmas - Fort Worth
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dublin_Philharmonic_Orchestra_performing_Tchaikovsky’s_Symphony_No_4_in_Charlotte,_North_Carolina.jpg
[Man playing the tuba.]
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Erich_Nauwerck%27s_Glasharfe.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Robert_tiso_glass_harp.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Szklana-Harfa.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Glasharfenspielerin.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Glass.harmonica.in.rome.arp.jpg
Glass harp maestro
Glass armonica, played by Dean Shostak
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Formal_Black_Tie_Wedding_Reception.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fran%C3%A7ois_G%C3%A9rard_-_Ossian.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Harpist_performing.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Harpist_Elaine_Christy_at_Unitarian_Church_2.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Harp_pedals_bigger.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1818-Lady-with-Harp-Eliza-Ridgely-Sully.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EmilyLevin-Harpist.jpg
http://maxpixel.freegreatpicture.com/Plucked-String-Instrument-Harp-Musical-Instrument-195622

http://maxpixel.freegreatpicture.com/Harp-Stringed-Tension-Concert-Classical-String-1788187

https://static.pexels.com/photos/951/person-woman-music-musician.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chinese_New_Year_Seattle_2007_-_25.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:US_Navy_110518-N-WP746-217_Musician_2nd_Class_Ed_William,_assigned_to_the_U.S._Pacific_Fleet_Band,_plays_the_cymbals_during_the_joint-service_rehea.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2010July22-TimKoehlerAB2-crpped-byVernBarber_edited-1.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Suworow-Kadetten_in_Bern_024.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BM17886-Edit.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Symphony_hall_boston.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Conductor_Tetiana_Kalinichenko.jpg
Conductor - Frederik Magle conducting a symphony orchestra 10
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wiki-ZA_Abb2.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Didgeridoo_(Imagicity_1070).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Didgeridoo_Player_(Imagicity_1064).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Didgeridoo_by_Steve_Roach_(2013-10-26_23.13.54_by_Sam_Howzit).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Australia_Aboriginal_Culture_009.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chris_playing_the_didgeridoo_live.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adrian_Mears_Didgeridoo_Unterfahrt_2010-08-21-001.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchestration
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Marlene_Dietrich_Stage_Fright_Trailer_2.jpg

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